The alkaline earth metals have higher melting and boiling point as compared to those of alkali metals . Other important minerals of calcium are fluorite or fluorspar CaF2, gypsum CaSO4.2 H2O and anhydrite CaSO4. As a result , a larger amount of lattice enthalpy is released during the formation of compounds containing M2+ ions than in the formation of compounds containing M+ ions. The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). Get More on NIOS Senior Secondary Notes NIOS Notes. Their melting and boiling points are higher compared to alkali metals. The first member , Be, forms covalent compounds. The alkali metals: are soft (they can be cut with a knife) have relatively low melting points Atomic and ionic radii of alkaline earth metals are fairly large though smaller than the corresponding alkali metals and these increases down the group. (2) The existence of divalent ions in the solid state is due to the reason that divalent cations due to smaller size and higher charge form stronger lattices then monovalent cations. Beryllium ,however, form covalent compounds because it has smaller size and high ionization enthalpy. Alkali metals have the electronic configuration of [Noble gas] ns 1 while Alkaline earth metals have, [Noble gas] ns 2 electronic configuration. The values of the first ionization enthalpy of elements of Group 2 are greater than those of the elements of group 1 because the atoms of alkaline earth metals have smaller size and higher nuclear charge than those of alkali metals. Chemical Properties of Alkali Metals. So they do not impart colour to the flame. Reason : Because of their smaller size and hence better packing as compared to alkali metals, they are denser than alkali metal. Alkaline earth metal prefer to form divalent ions rather than monovalent ions Reason: They form ionic compounds because they have low ionization enthalpies. Here, we will talk about the different compounds of alkali metals and their general characteristics. They need large amount of energy for excitation of electrons to higher energy levels which is not available in the bunsen flame. This page explores the trends in some atomic and physical properties of the Group 2 elements: beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium. Atomic and Ionic Radii The alkaline earth metals (beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra)) are a group of chemical elements in the s-block of the periodic table with very similar properties: 1. shiny 2. silvery-white 3. somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure 4. readily lose their two outermost electrons to form cations with a 2+ charge 5. low densities 6. low melting points 7. low boiling poi… Alkaline earth metals and alloys containing alkaline earth metals regarded as reducing agents. These elements form +2 cations because they have two valence electrons and, a cation can be formed by removing those electrons. Alkali metals group [Group 1A] Alkali metals group is located on the maximum left side of the modern periodic table.It is the first group of s-block, Despite the presence of hydrogen at the top of the group (1A), It is not one of the alkali metals but it is one of the nonmetals because it has a small atomic size and it is a gas.. General properties of alkali metals Most of their typical compounds are therefore ionic: salts in which the metal occurs as the cation M 2+, where M represents any Group 2 atom. They have smaller atomic radii than the … They are softer but harder than alkali metals. Alkaline earth metals and alloys containing alkaline earth metals regarded as reducing agents. They have a gray-white lustre when freshly cut but tarnish readily in air, particularly the heavier members of the group. They all occur in nature, but are only found in compounds and minerals, not in their elemental forms. Reason: The alkaline earth metals have a higher nuclear charge ,and ,therefore the electrons are attracted more strongly towards the nucleus. When alkaline earth elements and their compounds are put into a flame, the electrons absorb energy and are excited to higher levels. Have questions or comments? The alkaline earth metals (beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra)) are a group of chemical elements in the s-block of the periodic table with very similar properties: shiny; silvery-white; somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure (1) The divalent cation of alkaline earth metal acquire stable inert gas configuration. Therefore, they can easily lose these two electrons to form divalent cation. The density of these metal first decreases from Be to Ca and then increases from Ca to Ba. Reason : Because of their smaller size and more closed packed crystal lattice as compared to alkali metals, their  melting and boiling points are higher than those of group 1 elements. Physical properties. Alkali metals are softer when compared to alkaline earth metals. All other elements form ionic compounds. Your email address will not be published. The third ionization enthalpy of magnesium will be very high because now the electron has to be removed from the stable noble gas configuration. Be, (2) The existence of divalent ions in the solid state is due to the reason that divalent cations due to smaller size and higher charge form stronger lattices then monovalent cations. Legal. Consequently the electropositive or metallic character increases. However, since these electrons are in the s orbital as an electron pair, these elements are not that much reactive. The second ionization enthalpies of the elements of group 1 are higher than those of elements of group 2. The main difference between alkali metals and alkaline earth metals is that alkali metals have one valence electron in the outermost orbit whereas alkaline earth metals have two valence electrons in the outermost orbit. Beryllium is found in small quantities as silicate minerals, beryl Be3Al2Si6O8 and phenacite Be2SiO4. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Slurried or finely divided barium have been known to react with explosive force when mixed with such halogenated hydrocarbons as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorotrifluoroethane, fluorotrichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc. Alkaline earth metals in their pure forms are generally shiny and silvery. The melting point of the alkali metals is relatively lower than the alkaline earth metal. Loading image • • • Previous. They are fairly reactive under standard conditions. The alkaline earth metals are denser than the alkali metals due to smaller size and better backing in the crystal lattice. Alkaline-earth metal - Alkaline-earth metal - Physical and chemical behaviour: The alkaline-earth elements are highly metallic and are good conductors of electricity. Thus, these elements show strong electropositive or metallic character. She has started this educational website with the mindset of spreading Free Education to everyone. Reason:  The second electron in case of alkali metal is to be removed from a cation which has already acquired the stable noble gas configuration whereas in case of alkaline earth metal, the second electron is to be removed from a cation which is yet to acquire the stable noble gas configuration. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Reason: Due to smaller size of the cation and greater number of valence electrons, the metallic bonding in alkaline earth metal is stronger as compared to alkali metal. Therefore, they can easily lose these two electrons to form divalent cation. They rarely occur in their pure form, however, because they are very reactive. They are silvery, white, and hard metals. Alkaline earth metals are also highly reactive and hence do not occur in the free state but are widely distributed in nature in the combined state as silicates, carbonates, sulphates and phosphate. Hydrides: Alkali metals react with hydrogen at higher temperatures to form metallic hydrides. They are less electropositive or metallic than the alkali metal. Strontium is mined as  celestite SrSO4 and Strontianite SrCO3 and barium is mined as barytes , BaSO4. Slurried or finely divided barium have been known to react with explosive force when mixed with such halogenated hydrocarbons as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorotrifluoroethane, fluorotrichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc. Missed the LibreFest? Because of this reason ,these metals are less soft then alkali metals. Alkaline earth metals uniformly show an oxidation state of +2. Group 2: Physical Properties of Alkali Earth Metals, [ "article:topic", "electrons", "electronegativity", "ionization energy", "electron", "authorname:clarkj", "Melting points", "barium", "Magnesium", "strontium", "calcium", "Beryllium", "showtoc:no", "Physical Properties", "atomic radius", "First Ionization Energy", "Atomization energy", "atomic properties", "Pauling scale", "electronegativities", "boiling points", "trend", "metallic bonds" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FModules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)%2FDescriptive_Chemistry%2FElements_Organized_by_Block%2F1_s-Block_Elements%2FGroup__2_Elements%253A_The_Alkaline_Earth_Metals%2F2_Group_2%253A_Physical_Properties_of_Alkali_Earth_Metals, Former Head of Chemistry and Head of Science, The Thermal Stability of the Nitrates and Carbonates, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. On moving down the group, ionization enthalpy values go on decreasing because of the increase in atomic size due to addition of the new shells and screening effect of the electrons in the inner shell which overweigh the effect of increased nuclear charge. The tendency to form ionic compounds increases down the group because ionization enthalpy decreases. Loading image • • • Trends in Physical properties: Trends in Physical Properties. The alkaline earth metals are highly electropositive and hence metallic and their electropositive or metallic character increases down the group. Alkaline earth metal prefer to form divalent ions rather than monovalent ions. The densities of alkaline earth metal do not show any regular trend with increasing atomic number. As a result ,their atomic and ionic radii are smaller than those of the corresponding alkali metals. The decrease in density from Be to C may be due to decrease in packing of atoms in their solid lattice. Alkaline earths have low electron affinities and low electronegativities. In their pure state, all of these elements tend to have a shiny, metallic appearance. Alkaline earth metals share many similar properties including: They are silvery, shiny, and relatively soft metals. What are the similar properties of alkaline earth metals? Mg also shows some tendency for covalency. General Characteristics of Compounds of Alkaline Earth Metals Physical Characteristics or Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals. Required fields are marked *, Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals, Beryllium is found in small quantities as silicate minerals, beryl Be, Calcium is the fifth most abundant element by weight found in the earth crust.It mainly  occurs as CaCO, The hydration enthalpies of alkaline earth metal ions decreases as the size of the metal ion increases down the group i.e. These metals are highly electropositive and form compounds which are ionic in nature. The name alkaline earth was given since the oxides are alkaline in nature and remain unaffected by heat or fire and exist in Earth’s crust. Alkaline earth metals have less electropositive or metallic character as compared to alkali metals. Properties of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals Samantha Getsin and Mitashee Das Alkaline Earth Metals Physical Properties Physical Properties Second-most reactive metals: can easily lose the two valence electrons due to low ionization energy React with hydrogen to form metallic They have two outer valence electrons which they readily lose. The enthalpy of hydration of MgCl2 is much higher than that of MgCl. The lanthanides (rare earth) and actinides are also transition metals. Sections below cover the trends in atomic radius, first ionization energy, electronegativity, and physical properties. Their compounds are less ionic because their ionization enthalpies are higher than those of the corresponding alkali metals. Alkaline Earth (Group II) Trends Group 2: General Properties The elements in the group include beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). Next. Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals Down the column, nuclear charge increases and a new orbital is added to each alkaline earth atom. As with the alkali metals, the properties depend on the ease with which electrons are lost. Alkaline earth metals form dipositive ions, group 2 elements are called alkaline earth metals, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 हिन्दी – क्षितिज – Chapter 3 – सवैया, कवित्त – देव, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 हिन्दी – क्षितिज – Chapter 2 – राम लक्ष्मण परशुराम संवाद, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 हिन्दी – क्षितिज – Chapter 1 – पद, Economics Chapter 5 Consumer Rights – Notes & Study Material. The alkaline earths have two electrons in the outer shell. Beryllium and magnesium atoms are smaller in size and their electrons are strongly held by the nucleus. Properties of the Alkaline Earth Metals . However, there are certain physical properties that make them different from other elements. Many of the physical properties of alkali metals are very similar to that of other metals. Some appears white but beryllium and magnesium appear greyish. I… Alkaline Earth metals are very reactive because they readily give up their two valence electrons to achieve a full outer energy level, which is the most stable arrangement of electrons. Filed Under: Chemistry, Class 11, s-Block Elements Tagged With: Alkaline earth metals form dipositive ions, atomic radii of group 2, density of group 2 elements, electronic configuration of group 2, flame colouration of group 2 elements, group 2 elements are called alkaline earth metals, hydration enthalpy of group 2, ionization enthalpy of group 2, melting and boiling point of group 2, metallic character of group 2 elements, nature of bonds formed. Therefore, removal of second electron in case of alkaline earth metals requires much less energy than that in case of alkali metals. Reason: Due to smaller size of alkaline earth metal ions as compared to alkali metal ions ,the hydration enthalpies of alkaline earth metal ions are larger than those of alkali metal ions. The alkaline earth metals have fairly low ionization enthalpies though greater than those of the corresponding elements of group 1 and these decreases down the group. Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals. Like alkali metals, alkaline earth metals form ionic compounds which are less ionic than the corresponding alkali metal compounds.The tendency to form ionic compounds increases down the group. It is this higher enthalpy of hydration which more than compensates for the higher value of second ionisation enthalpy . To find potential alkaline-earth metal-doped aromatic superconductors and clarify the origin of superconductivity in metal-doped phenanthrene (PHN) systems, we have systematically investigated the crystal and electronic structures of bivalent metal (Mg, Ca, … Metallic hydrides release hydrides ions. Since the atoms of the alkaline earth metals have smaller size and higher ionization enthalpies as compared to corresponding alkali metals, their tendency to lose valence electrons is lesser than those of alkali metals. Some physical properties and their trends is given in table: Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals. Alkaline earth metals have relatively low ionization energies for their first two electrons; because of this, alkaline earth metals exist with a 2+ charge most of the time. As a result , a larger amount of lattice enthalpy is released during the formation of compounds containing M. Like alkali metals, alkaline earth metals form ionic compounds which are less ionic than the corresponding alkali metal compounds. Alkaline earth metals uniformly show an oxidation state of +2. Different alkali metals While most of the alkali metals are silver in colour caesium actually has a gold tint Francium is the only radioactive alkali metal All alkali metals have a … On moving down the group, the atomic radii increases and ionization enthalpy decreases. With regard to the valency of these metals, all … The alkaline earth metals have two electrons more than the nearest noble gas configuration. So, group IIA elements are also termed as alkaline earth metals. Alkaline earth metals are less reactive than alkali metals. when they return to their ground state, The absorbed energy is emitted in form of visible light of a particular wavelength. Increases down the group, the properties depend on the ease with which are. 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