These companies do not restrict themselves to current state-of-the-art techniques. Business associates were made directly accountable for HIPAA violations and could be penalized financially for violating HIPAA Rules. The linkage in market-driven high technology comes primarily through R&D’s active participation in the market planning process, especially in the objective-setting stage. Intense infighting for control between AT&T’s marketing people and its technically oriented Western Electric group has become so bitter that the company has already lost key members of its cadre of marketing executives. The consumer is usually looking for the best price and That in turn has created high levels of employment in the industry—a benefit to society at one level. We were not surprised, then, to see a company like McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (McAuto), whose main business is CAD/CAM time sharing, merge the formerly separate areas of marketing and R&D, enabling the company to establish a development-to-marketing line for technical products.4. Technology has embedded itself in the tourism industry. Managers of high-technology companies like to think of themselves as being market-driven. The penalty structure for HIPAA violations was also amended by HITECH. OCR has issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) regarding these provisions. The high-technology company that is not part of a larger corporation and is engaged basically in one industry (for example, Prab Robots). Being the first person at WordStream to take the lead on customer marketing, I had to build the role from the ground up…seriously, we had zip, nothing, nada! As the organizational complexity of a company increases, the possibilities for linking marketing and R&D in profitably innovative ways become more intriguing. Exhibit Conceptualizing the high-technology marketing-R&D interface. This research procedure allowed us to achieve a balance among company-specific, industry-specific, and industrywide perspectives. Regulatory Changes Some suggest, for example, that a tiny Findlay, Ohio-based holography start-up has outpaced two longstanding Fortune “500” entrants. Small breaches must also be reported to OCR, but within 60 days of the end of the calendar year in which the breach was discovered. Early on, any market-share leader is in a precarious position. Ostensibly, then, marketing and R&D managers have little reason to fail to communicate effectively with one another. In the 1950s, Corning, a leading specialty glass materials company, developed a thermal shock-resistant glass-based material ideal for missile nose cones. By design, we studied personal selling within a single company, distribution channels within an industry, and advertising in a cross-section of high-technology industries. We directed the industry-specific inquiry to robotics (more than one-forth of the major U.S. manufacturers in this industry provided data). Some 20 years later, another property of this original nose cone material—its transparency to radio signals—permitted an extension of its consumer application as an ideal cookware for microwave ovens. Mobile marketing is part of most These managers fail to reorient themselves so that they can compete effectively under the new conditions. Title I of HIPAA is concerned with the portability of health insurance and protecting the rights of workers between jobs to ensure health insurance coverage is maintained, which have nothing to do with the HITECH Act. Therefore, much of the early interface efforts should address such questions as what industry is the company in, what are the conceivable market opportunities, and what are the market development priorities? Time will tell how the enforcement regime will change post the HITECH Act, but certainly the Act contains language that implies lax enforcement may be ancient history. The HITECH Act introduced a new requirement for issuing notifications to individuals whose electronic protected health information was exposed in a security breach if the information was not encrypted. Google has found that about 50% of B2B queries today are made on smartphones. Certainly, few businesses would have bet that such diagnostic tests would lead to a major new medical market so soon. Despite the fact that it was a great achievement and a technological innovation for us, at the time it looked like a toy to the general public. As the first high-tech marketer, Thomas Edison, observed, “First, be sure a thing is wanted or needed, then go ahead.”. We can differentiate further between market-driven and innovation-driven companies. Additionally, the top executive in the perceptive high-tech company stays involved in every major development decision. For example, Masahiko Kajitani, the general manager of video planning at Matsushita Electric Industrial Company, has said that companies should avoid overdelegating marketing and consumer studies to people uninvolved in product development. Companies that appropriately link the two areas, though, can effectively anticipate, analyze, and exploit market opportunities. However, the story does not end there. Establishing realistic expectations early on mitigates cross fire later between R&D and marketing about “who is at fault” when a project fails to yield products that are readily marketable. In respect of expanding the adoption of health information technology, the HITECH Act applies to healthcare organizations and medical practices that benefit from the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Once these are answered, the types of linkage guidelines appropriate for market-driven high technology apply to innovation-driven high technology as well. In addition to fines for business associates, HIPAA-covered entities could also be fined for violations of HIPAA Rules by their business associates. Other market casualties in the infant home computer industry already include Panasonic, Tomy Corporation, Mattel, and Timex. In this supply-side stage of market development, marketing strategy is highly entrepreneurial—formulated on sketchy market information and on intuition. Biotechnology again provides an example. … Several years ago we encountered a start-up consumer-products company that had received substantial backing from venture capitalists. Goodyear Aerospace, the high-technology subsidiary of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, has at least twice shared technological know-how from Aerospace’s Defense Systems Division with its sister division, the Aircraft Wheel and Brake Division, to solve several of the latter’s competitive problems. Clearly, R&D’s efforts do not end once the selling begins. The high-tech development strategy group consists of the CEO or president, marketing, R&D, and production in roughly three-fourths of the companies we sampled. Regard definition, to look upon or think of with a particular feeling: to regard a person with favor. For strategic reasons, the company may have placed the high-tech group in a research environment (Silicon Valley, Route 128, or Research Triangle), or an attractive site (Aspen or Austin, for example), or at some distance from headquarters’ distractions. A traditional consumer or industrial enterprise with one high-tech division or subsidiary. What form might R&D involvement on the marketing side take? An official of Corning Glass Works provided us with a better illustration of a diverse cross-divisional application. The Marketing mix is a set of four decisions which needs to be taken before launching any new product. It may be a fledgling venture or a market leader. “The newer and more innovative a product is, the more likely it is that the public might not appreciate it at the beginning. Marriott has maintained the image of a premium hospitality brand. Backing up the high-tech marketing team are the traditional specialized support organizations, mainly advertising agencies and marketing research firms, as well as other consultants. Copyright © 2020 Harvard Business School Publishing. marketing concept that tells us what customers think about a brand or a company or its offerings When we asked executives in a broad spectrum of high-technology companies for their opinions, more than three-fourths think that most companies make some effort to link marketing and R&D. Not necessarily. The HITECH Act required business associates to enter into a BAA with their subcontractors. The advertising study included one-half of the top high-technology industrial advertisers and a sampling of high-tech consumer-product companies. Yet, once sophisticated marketing abilities became indispensable in the home computer market, companies dependent mostly on technological strengths were no match for IBM, Apple, and others. Carefully, we selected companies for their successful financial and market track records in high technology—companies of all sizes that have proved themselves in marketplace competition. The high-tech marketers surveyed register strong dissent to the notion that the R&D people’s involvement with a new product ends when it is turned over to marketing; 85% encourage a continuing role for R&D. However, in saying that, would you rather get involved with a Company that isn't? Cancel Any Time. (For details on our research, see the insert.). Also we find that high-technology marketing people have a predominately scientific background. And primary data from traditional interviews of prospective buyers or users are of dubious value in answering questions about possible products or applications resulting from new technologies. It is important to note that, although HITECH mostly focuses on information technology, HHS can still take enforcement action against a Covered Entity or Business Associate when a breach unrelated to technology occurs. We witnessed this at the 13th ROBOTS 7 Exposition in Chicago in April 1983, where R&D people from many of the exhibitors held discussions with prospective buyers. Its short-term goals identify the need for products to diagnose infectious diseases and cancer. Undoubtedly, top management’s direct input is necessary if either marketing or R&D is subordinate or totally removed from the other’s decision making. Typical reader has a high interest in – and understanding of – your product (or at least of the problem it solves). Moreover, it gives solid direction to the marketing research people who seek the strongest commercial applications for a technological advance. We also gathered extensive survey data on general marketing management issues from the chief marketing officers in 50 additional high-tech companies. Marketing and R&D people should talk almost daily during the initial market planning effort for a new product or application and regularly thereafter for updating and revision. Of course, if the development project does not proceed according to plan (i.e., cost or schedule) or market conditions change, we jointly reevaluate our position.”. By improving the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare in a HIPAA-compliant manner, the Act aims to improve care coordination, reduce disparities in the ways healthcare is administered Their managers place little stock in the mathematically based methods of marketing research that more mature companies use—methods requiring an abundance of data from a representative sampling for drawing statistical inferences. These updates formed the basis for the HIPAA Breach Notification Rule which requires HIPAA covered entities to send notifications to affected individuals if there is a significant risk of financial, reputational or other harm as a result of a breach. In fact, one day’s leader, perhaps an Osborne Computer, can become the next day’s Chapter 11 or state-of-the-art victim. However, he had sold the company producing the product while it was still in the innovation-driven stage of market development, and thus he had never directed a company in a competitive environment. For the first three years, Micom followed the all-too-usual corporate path of not linking marketing and R&D, and according to Steve Frankel, vice president of marketing and development, R&D and marketing were competing. A high-tech division in a diversified corporation may be able to give a sister division in a different industry or in a different market the technology it needs to develop new market niches or entire markets. Face-to-face, in-person interaction and an agenda for meetings are most productive. Google has changed its strategy with regard to how much and over which media it invests in advertising. As briefly mentioned in the introduction, promotion is the communication aspect of the marketing mix. The company-specific study focused on the high-tech business-to-business sales force of a single, but premier, comprehensive computer producer-marketer. 3. As shown in the Exhibit, in market-driven high technology, the main direction for R&D is from marketing. The advertising agency is more integrally involved in the company’s total marketing efforts than in typical consumer marketing, where in-house marketers chart the course. Our data note that marketing’s consulting is prevalent in the research and development phase, but, contrary to some views, not to the detriment of R&D. While this in itself was a major breakthrough, the late R. Lee Waterman, former CEO of Corning, saw a different and unique application for this material (trademarked PYROCERAM). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Many high-tech companies, laboratories, or divisions or subsidiaries of major corporations are essentially research businesses. High-tech industries tend to be volatile at best, and as seen in the semiconductor, microcomputer, and robotics fields, a sorting-out of competition occurs quickly compared to less technology-intense endeavors. If a product is priced higher or lower than its per… Copyright © 2014-2021 HIPAA Journal. Over 90% of the executives in our study find that concept testing is helpful in forecasting the success of potential new products. Advertisements must clearly and prominently disclose whether the person giving the testimonial or endorsement (the “promoter”) is a client and whether the promoter is compensated. Executives successful in an innovation-driven situation may have difficulty adjusting to a market-driven environment. Within Marketing and Development, we have three assistant vice presidents who manage, on a product-line basis, the marketing and development activities of their respective product areas. Later, as high-tech markets mature, more normal demand-side conditions begin to prevail. In the first and second types of companies, the linkage problem is straightforward, but, in the third and fourth types, marketing and R&D appear at many places and levels in the organization. For many established companies, becoming more effective marketers is a matter of fine tuning—increasing expenditures on promotion and advertising or reorganizing the sales force. Another example of market specificity is Genetic Systems Corp.’s approach in writing lucid market goals guiding its R&D efforts over the short-, intermediate-, and long-term. In this kind of organization, the marketing-R&D interface becomes a two-stage process. Our studies have led us to identify four general types of high-technology companies, according to their degree of organizational complexity: 1. GDPR has changed the way marketers communicate with their customers. Marketing Authorizations and When Authorizations are NOT Necessary. TI eventually withdrew from the home computer market in the face of sizable monetary losses. As new technologies come on stream, their applications create or revolutionize markets and demand. Within each SBU, either a market-driven or an innovation-driven interface is appropriate, but the creative linkage process should not end there. One of the main aims of the HITECH Act was to encourage the adoption of electronic health and medical records by creating financial incentives for making the transition from paper to digital records. For example, companies of all types and sizes are currently giving attention to biotechnology. Price coversthe actual amount the end user is expected to pay for a product. 4. In the majority of the high-tech companies in our survey, the senior financial officer plays no central role in product development and planning, and only occasionally is corporate counsel represented. I read on the cover of Success at Home Magazine that FHTM is an Entrepreneur's field of dreams. Three-fourths of the executives we surveyed indicate that their new product ideas typically result from specific responses to market opportunities, rather than from R&D initiatives. The Department of Health and Human Services’ Office for Civil Rights must also be notified of breaches within the same time frame if the breach impacts 500 or more individuals. What is the Relationship Between HITECH, HIPAA, and Electronic Health and Medical Records? Although sometimes considered poor substitutes for about or concerning, the phrases as regards, in regard to, and with regard to are standard and occur in all varieties of spoken and written English, especially in business writing: As regards your letter of January 19. In both instances, the technology shared had positive effects on Aircraft’s market competitiveness. Also, a competitor’s technological discovery or improvement, even one made by a start-up company, can make obsolete the leader’s technology and the products or processes on which it is based. R&D’s participation in trade shows is direct; over one-third of the companies we surveyed have R&D representation at trade shows. These variables are also known as the 4 P's of marketing or the product marketing mix. Today’s high-tech companies must face the ongoing challenge of adapting organizationally and philosophically as their markets evolve from supply side to demand side. We’ll break down the technological trends that will change the way we travel. Our inquiries reveal that applications support personnel are directly represented in the selling efforts of more than three-fourths of the robotics companies. Just as there are technically trained top executives who are also good marketers, there are marketing professionals with no technological training who successfully help guide high-tech companies. Researchers have also been successful in deriving other low-cost diagnostic tests for hepatitis, prostate cancer, and venereal disease. It was able to withstand the heat and stress of going from ground zero to space and atmospheric re-entry, even at supersonic speeds. Market planning that explicitly recognizes and accounts for the strategic distinction between market-driven and innovation-driven research goes a long way toward yielding better corporate performance. By improving the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare in a HIPAA-compliant manner, the Act aims to improve care coordination, reduce disparities in the ways healthcare is administered, engage patients and their families in the decision-making process, and improve the public health by laying the foundations for a Nationwide Health Information Network. High-technology companies often have research and development capabilities superior to those of competitors, yet achieve only mediocre commercial success or fail completely. In the early 1970s, Defense Systems transferred integrated circuit technology to Aircraft. All rights reserved. As an advertising agency executive specializing in high-technology products notes, high-tech efforts of this genre rely on a “presumptive need” rather than identification of buyers’ desires. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.-April 17, 2009 Secretary of HHS to define "unsecured PHI" (September 2009) -August 17, 2009 FTC to Within each product-line organization, we have [an] individual marketing and development team… At Micom, marketing and development groups work together to define new directions and solutions to the needs of their specific product areas. The possible applications of biotechnology are so numerous that the initial battle has been waged for basic patents.2 While forecasters talk of developments ranging from disease-free grains to microorganisms for gobbling up oil spills, the range may be so vast that some companies may delay or ignore entirely important commercial applications. 2. However, there is a strong relationship between HITECH and HIPAA Title II. I believe that it is. He is a specialist on legal and regulatory affairs, and has several years of experience writing about HIPAA. This funding was based largely on the president’s previous development of an eminently successful high-tech industrial product. 3. […]. In our judgment, businesses must meet three criteria to be labeled “high technology”:1. Innovation-driven companies’ reluctance to use quantitative approaches stems from the small amount of useful historical data. Finally, consider the linkage needs of the multidivision major corporation with market-driven and innovation-driven interface demands and, perhaps, a portfolio of high-tech and low-tech strategic business units (SBUs). HIPAA Journal provides the most comprehensive coverage of HIPAA news anywhere online, in addition to independent advice about HIPAA compliance and the best practices to adopt to avoid data breaches, HIPAA violations and regulatory fines. The measures included in the Act to make the enforcement of HIPAA more effective are there to ensure the adoption of health information technology is compliant with the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules. R&D involvement in marketing research appears to occur with increasing frequency, at least in market-driven high-tech companies. Moreover, they see product planning as both an R&D and a marketing function. What can happen if a company limits R&D participation principally to the research arena? These four variables help the firm in making strategic decisions necessary for the smooth running of any product / organization. Are such companies simply in need of improved marketing skills? A few high-technology companies, such as Apple Computer, have even looked to consumer-goods marketing professionals to provide marketing leadership. The technologically neutral nature of HIPAA had led to confusion about how best to protect PHI. TRW’s situation is not unusual. The makeup of the marketing-R&D team often depends on whether the product or application is in development or being sold. Although company-specific recommendations are needed, possibilities might include both the establishment of a conventional corporatewide marketing-R&D committee or project team and a more experimental approach such as in-house trade shows for the company’s SBUs to demonstrate and publicize otherwise proprietary knowledge and offerings to one another. While much can be learned from the mistakes of failed high-tech companies (which we looked at separately), we did not want to offer advice on marketing high technology that is based on the experiences of weaker competitors. Apple Computer’s president, John Sculley, is right on target; he has mandated that Apple’s top management pay close attention to product development so that more disciplined market strategy will result. Marketing has tremendous impact on society. In the semiconductor field, the industry’s ability to find ways to cram more transistors into a single chip may forestall advances in optics. They were also required to agree to adhere to certain provisions of the HIPAA Security Rule, including the implementation of administrative, physical, and technical controls to safeguard the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of PHI. These 3 sample plans can help. The rewards of cross-pollination of ideas among divisions come from triggering previously undiscovered market applications or correcting competitive shortcomings in product quality. Making the transition to customer marketing has been an extremely Marketing Delivers Value Not only does marketing deliver value to customers, but also that value translates into the value of the firm as it develops a reliable customer base and increases its sales and profitability. We suggest that management ask the question “what marketing with what R&D?” again and again. R&D’s reaction (dotted arrow) comes in the form of guidance on what is technically feasible and ideas from scientific circles. Nike has always put its customers’ interest first and this has been the basis of all its marketing strategies. Since then, the industry has grown to include dozens of competitors catering to a fast-growing and potentially huge market. In 1950, our company marketed a tape recorder. The president and others who ran the new consumer-products company had engineering backgrounds. 2. In terms of HIPAA compliance, the HITECH Act is important because it addresses loopholes in the original legislation and gives the Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) more powers to enforce HIPAA. In addition, U.S. military and space research has made possible sundry products for consumer and industrial markets. Yet only a few years ago the commercial potential of the underlying technology appeared poor. Market-driven high-technology companies assign R&D the task of producing innovations that meet specific market objectives. “My organization, Marketing and Development, has the corporate responsibility for all marketing (product planning, marketing management, promotional input, and manuals) and development (all engineering and R&D) activities performed by the corporation. With regard to pricing strategy too, the company has followed a premium pricing strategy which also reflects in its brand portfolio that contains 21 luxury and “High tech” has become a buzzword to describe everything from the space shuttle to the electric frying pan. Turning a longtime technology-driven regulated monopoly into a market-driven competitor is a formidable chore. As a cornerstone, Allied has created an in-house office of science and technology, which brokers technology; it will “match ‘clients’ in operating companies with technology in the labs.”3, Again, as with Goodyear Aerospace and Corning Glass, we see a multidivisional company that has not stopped with the question of how to link marketing and R&D within business units. In such instances, obviously, R&D remains involved. These companies fall into one of two groups: R&D advances move deliberately as competitors turn modifications and improvements in existing technology into incremental advantage. All rights reserved. The business requires a strong scientific-technical basis.2. After the R&D breakthrough is made, customer needs or wants are considered. “High tech” has become a buzzword to describe everything from the space shuttle to the electric frying pan. That evolution is usually not a smooth process. Even so, we find that power plays or strained relations do frequently occur and that marketing-R&D linkage suffers in the process. 3. “Allied After Bendix: R&D is the Key,” Business Week, December 12, 1983, p. 79. In market planning, R&D can guarantee that marketing does not lose sight of R&D’s vision for the product. Author: Steve Alder has many years of experience as a journalist, and comes from a background in market research. Supply-Side thinker a market-driven environment prowess taken singularly, or divisions or subsidiaries of major corporations are essentially businesses... Sometimes part of the marketing research people who seek the strongest commercial applications the industry grown! Officials, who else is on the president’s previous development of an eminently successful high-tech product... And sizes are currently giving attention to biotechnology other study tools companies’ with regard to marketing hitech has efforts variables are also known the... 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